This paper discusses the topic of ‘Comparing Laws’ in the specific context of the decentralised enforcement of EU competition law and the parallel application of national competition laws. More specifically, it deals with the harmonisation process between the Member States’ and the EU competition laws. This is a unique process as at first sight it accommodates regulatory competition between the Member States and the Commission, resulting in the emergence of voluntary harmonisation.
“Hegel always seems to want to say that things that look different are in reality the same. Whereas what interests me is to show that things that look the same are in reality different”.
Le concept de norme est fondamental. Avec les notions d’espace, de population et de pouvoir, il contribue à la définition de l’état en tant qu’ordre juridique, du moins si l’on présume une certaine identité entre la norme et le droit (ou le devoir). Ainsi, d’un point de vue hiérarchique (vertical), tout ordre juridique peut être conçu comme un système de règles organisées sur différents niveaux.
Many contend that liberalism is weak from the point of view of value orientation, because it neglects that central part of human experience which is expressed by substantive ideas of the good, such as human flourishing, the good life, human goodness, and the like. This paper argues that there is a long tradition, in the Western culture, of a substantive view of human goodness revolving around the notion of ‘virtues’
“Although logically incompatible, every choice necessarily reflects a moment of both commensuration (the recognition of quantitative difference) and incommensuration (the recognition of qualitative difference).” [J.L. SCHROEDER, Cardozo Law School]
This paper is an attempt to summarise and rationalise three dominant academic discourses related to the critical appraisal of freedom of expression, stemming from postmodern jurisprudence, from a transatlantic perspective. This type of conceptualisation of free speech was initially almost exclusively pertinent to the American legal debate.